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Biquaternion Calculus Domain

D. Cyganski and Bill Page - July 2007

This version is implemented as a new domain in Aldor .

aldor
#pile
#include "axiom"
import from NonNegativeInteger
BiQuaternion(R:Join(OrderedSet,CommutativeRing)): Exports == Implementation where
C==>Complex Expression R
Exports ==> QuaternionCategory(C) with
qlist: List C -> %
-- takes a complex list (parameter l) into a quaternion
listq: % -> List C
-- takes a quaternion into a list
matrixq: % -> SquareMatrix(2,C)
-- takes a quaternion into a matrix
sig0:%
sig1:%
sig2:%
sig3:%
siglist: % -> List C
-- Pauli basis representation of the biquaternion
if Complex(Expression(R)) has PartialDifferentialRing(Symbol) then
D: (%,Symbol,Symbol,Symbol) -> %
-- quaternion derivative
rot: (C,%) -> %
-- biquaternion rotation
/: (%,%) -> %
/: (C,%) -> %
/: (%,C) -> %
abs: % -> C
exp: % -> %
coerce: Complex R -> %
import from C
coerce(z:Complex R):% ==
import from Expression(R),ComplexFunctions2(R,Expression R)
map(coerce,z)::%
-- Define a function that takes a complex list (parameter l) into a quaternion
qlist(l:List C):%==
import from Integer
quatern(l 1,l 2,l 3,l 4)
-- Define a function that takes a quaternion into a list
listq(x:%):List C == [real x, imagI x, imagJ x, imagK x]
-- Define a function that takes a biquat into a matrix
matrixq(x:%):SquareMatrix(2,C) ==
import from List List C
matrix [[real x + imaginary()*imagI(x), imagJ x + imaginary()*imagK(x)],
[-imagJ(x) + imaginary()*imagK(x), real x - imaginary()*imagI(x)]]
-- Define a function that produces the Pauli basis representation of the biquaternion
siglist(x:%):List C == [real x, -imaginary()*imagK(x),-imaginary()*imagJ(x),imaginary()*imagI(x)]
sig0:% == quatern(1,0,0,0)
sig1:% == imaginary() * quatern(0,0,0,1)
sig2:% == imaginary() * quatern(0,0,1,0)
sig3:% == -imaginary() * quatern(0,1,0,0)
-- Define the quaternion derivative (Morgan, 2001, Eq. 2)
if Complex(Expression(R)) has PartialDifferentialRing(Symbol) then
D(q:%,x:Symbol,y:Symbol,z:Symbol):% == sig1*D(q,x)+sig2*D(q,y)+sig3*D(q,z)
-- Define a biquaternion rotation operator that takes a biquat through a rotation
-- of theta radians about the axis defined by the unit q biquat (Morgan 2001, Eq 3).
rot(theta:C,q:%):% ==
import from Integer, SparseMultivariatePolynomial(Integer, Kernel(C))
cos(theta/2::C)::% - imaginary()*q*sin(theta/2::C)
((x:%)/(y:%)):% == x*inv(y)
((x:C)/(y:%)):% == (x::%)*inv(y)
((x:%)/(y:C)):% == x*inv(y::%)
abs(q:%):C ==
sqrt(retract(q*conjugate(q)))
exp(q:%):% ==
import from Integer, SparseMultivariatePolynomial(Integer, Kernel(C))
q-conjugate(q)=0 => exp(retract(q+conjugate(q))/2::C)*sig0
exp(retract(q+conjugate(q))/2::C) * (sig0*cos(abs(q)) + (q-conjugate(q))/abs(q-conjugate(q)) * sin(abs(q)))
aldor
   Compiling FriCAS source code from file
/var/lib/zope2.10/instance/axiom-wiki/var/LatexWiki/7484925992146577797-25px001.as
using Aldor compiler and options
-O -Fasy -Fao -Flsp -lfricas -Mno-ALDOR_W_WillObsolete -DFriCAS -Y $FRICAS/algebra -I$FRICAS/algebra
Use the system command )set compiler args to change these
options.
The )library system command was not called after compilation.

fricas
)show BiQuaternion
The )show system command is used to display information about types
or partial types. For example, )show Integer will show
BiQuaternion is not the name of a known type constructor. If you
want to see information about any operations named BiQuaternion ,
issue
)display operations BiQuaternion

fricas
Q := BiQuaternion Integer
There are no library operations named BiQuaternion
Use HyperDoc Browse or issue
)what op BiQuaternion
to learn if there is any operation containing " BiQuaternion " in
its name.
Cannot find a definition or applicable library operation named
BiQuaternion with argument type(s)
Type
Perhaps you should use "@" to indicate the required return type,
or "$" to specify which version of the function you need. For testing the derivative we define this set of operators fricas Ft:=operator 'Ft; Fx:=operator 'Fx; Fy:=operator 'Fy; Fz:=operator 'Fz; Type: BasicOperator? Now form a general quaternion which is a function of x,y,z fricas F:Q:=Ft(x,y,z)*sig0()+Fx(x,y,z)*sig1()+Fy(x,y,z)*sig2()+Fz(x,y,z)*sig3() Q is not a valid type. In the Pauli basis the derivative of this biquat should produce (Morgan 2001, eq 1):  D(Ft+F.sigma)=div(F)+(grad(Ft)+%i*curl(F)).sigma  which it does fricas siglist(D(F,x,y,z)) There are no library operations named D having 4 argument(s) though there are 11 exposed operation(s) and 4 unexposed operation(s) having a different number of arguments. Use HyperDoc Browse, or issue )what op D to learn what operations contain " D " in their names, or issue )display op D to learn more about the available operations. Cannot find a definition or applicable library operation named D with argument type(s) Variable(F) Variable(x) Variable(y) Variable(z) Perhaps you should use "@" to indicate the required return type, or "$" to specify which version of the function you need.

## Test

(comment out this test later)

fricas
%i::Q
Q is not a valid type.

If I've defined these correctly, then the rotation about the x axis defined by qx below by 2 radians should give the same answer as exponentiation to -%i*qx (not a very complete test)

fricas
qx:Q:=sig1()
Q is not a valid type.

which it does

fricas
(%%(-1)=%%(-2))@Boolean
Cannot supply value for step 0 because 1 is the first step.

I would love to express a proof of equality such as:

   rot(theta,q) = exp((-theta/2)*%i*q)


for arbitrary real and biquaternion q as I would in Maple.

fricas
theta:Complex Expression Integer := _\theta (1)
Type: Complex(Expression(Integer))
fricas
map(simplify, siglist( rot(theta,q) - exp((-%i*theta/2) * q)))::List Expression Complex Integer
There are no library operations named rot
Use HyperDoc Browse or issue
)what op rot
to learn if there is any operation containing " rot " in its
name.
Cannot find a definition or applicable library operation named rot
with argument type(s)
Complex(Expression(Integer))
Variable(q)
Perhaps you should use "@" to indicate the required return type,
or "$" to specify which version of the function you need. fricas map(simplify,siglist(rot(2,qx)))::List Expression Complex Integer There are no library operations named rot Use HyperDoc Browse or issue )what op rot to learn if there is any operation containing " rot " in its name. Cannot find a definition or applicable library operation named rot with argument type(s) PositiveInteger Variable(qx) Perhaps you should use "@" to indicate the required return type, or "$" to specify which version of the function you need.

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